Month: December 2023


The CIA Triad: Availability

Open SignPreviously, we’ve introduced the CIA Triad and the components of its acronym: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. We’ve already covered Confidentiality and Integrity, this time we’re going to cover Availability.

In the trinity of information security principles, known as the CIA Triad, ‘Availability’ is the leg that is most often easily attacked by “script kiddies” or ruined by our own success. Today, let’s unravel what Availability means in information security, its real-world significance, and the fallout when it’s compromised.

Understanding Availability

In the context of information security, Availability refers to ensuring that information and resources are accessible to authorized users when needed. It’s not just about having data; it’s about having data ready for use, unhindered by obstacles like system failures, cyberattacks, or natural disasters.

Ensuring Availability

Redundant Systems
These are backup systems that kick in when the primary system fails, ensuring continuous access to data. This would be very important if your system has a failure due to hardware failures. Do you have the ability for your active system to switch to another hot system, a warm system, or even a cold site? How quickly?
Regular Maintenance and Updates
Keeping systems updated and well-maintained to prevent downtime caused by software or hardware issues. Best way to stay out of trouble is to avoid trouble. You need to make sure you’re patched and your equipment is running well, as well as relying on things like SMART for hard drive health. This is also where knowing metrics like MTTF (Mean Time to Failure) are important. If you have components that are coming up on their expected shelf-life, you need to start mitigating now.
Disaster Recovery Plans
Preparing for the worst – from cyberattacks to natural disasters – to ensure rapid restoration of services. What do you do if something happens to an entire site? That can mean your local power grid if you’re self-hosting, or issues with cloud regions with the big providers (it happens… more than we’d like!). Just like with Redundant Systems, you should have Redundancy at both the micro and macro level for your system.

Real-World Examples

E-Commerce Platforms
Imagine an e-commerce site crashing on Black Friday. The lack of availability can lead to significant financial loss and customer dissatisfaction. All “scale-based” attacks don’t have to be Denial of Service (DOS) or Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDOS). Sometimes, you can DOS yourself by running a huge promotion or you can get squished by going viral on a site like Reddit.
Healthcare Systems
In healthcare, system availability can be a matter of life and death. If medical staff can’t access patient records promptly, patient care could be compromised. This is true at every leg of the chain. You don’t have to look too far into the past to remember the debacle where literally hundreds of millions of dollars were spent on a site that couldn’t stand up to everyone trying to sign up for “Obamacare”. You’d think those millions could buy you a few people who had worked at Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Netflix, or somewhere where they might have had an idea how to ensure Availability through hard-learned lessons, but apparently not.
Banking Services
If an online banking platform is unavailable, customers cannot perform transactions, leading to frustration and potential financial complications. We just take this one for granted because banks have gotten so good at this, but imagine if you went to the store and tried to use your card and your bank (and just your bank) wasn’t playing ball today. I’ve been in stores where the “Credit Card Machine” was down, but I can’t think of one time that I couldn’t use my banking features due to my bank having an issue. I’m not saying it never happens, but this might just be the rarest version of this because they take Availability very seriously.

The Consequences of Poor Availability

When systems aren’t available, the consequences can be dire. We covered that a little bit with the real world examples, but here are some consequences boiled down:

Loss of Revenue
For businesses, downtime often translates directly into lost revenue, especially for services that depend on continuous online presence.
Damaged Reputation
Customers expect reliability. Frequent downtimes can tarnish an organization’s reputation and erode trust.
Operational Disruption
In sectors like manufacturing or logistics, lack of availability in information systems can lead to halted production lines or disrupted supply chains.

Protecting Against Availability Threats

To safeguard against threats to availability, organizations should:

Invest in Robust Infrastructure
This includes not only having backup systems but also ensuring that the infrastructure can handle high loads and resist cyberattacks. This one can be expensive, so a lot of people short change it at the beginning of their journey. “I can barely afford one server, how can I afford to pay for a second one I may never need?” I get it… but accepting a risk doesn’t make it go away. This is one that you’ll want to mitigate as soon as possible.
Implement Effective Monitoring Systems
These systems can alert administrators to potential issues before they cause downtime. Have you ever wondered what people are doing in Network Operations Centers (NOCs) and Security Operations Centers (SOCs)? This.. they are doing this. They are keeping their fingers on the pulses of all of the logs and metrics behind the systems, hoping to find signs of intrusions and failures and prevent them or respond as soon as possible.
Regularly Test Recovery Procedures
Regular testing ensures that, in the event of a system failure, the recovery processes are effective and efficient. Netflix has their Chaos Monkey code that just randomly shuts stuff off to ensure they can handle that happening regularly. They were the first company I heard of doing such a thing. They’ve since open-sourced it to share with others to potentially make everyone stronger. According to them, “Chaos Monkey randomly terminates virtual machine instances and containers that run inside of your production environment. Exposing engineers to failures more frequently incentivizes them to build resilient services.” Yep.


The ‘A’ in the CIA Triad – Availability – is a crucial component of information security. In our interconnected world, where we depend on instant access to information, ensuring that this information is readily available is as important as keeping it secure and intact. Knowing how to keep your systems running in the face of all that the world has to throw at you is vitally important and something you need to consider with your technology decisions.


The CIA Triad: Integrity

Wax SealPreviously, we’ve introduced the CIA Triad and the components of its acronym: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. We’ve already covered Confidentiality and this time we’re going to cover the often overlooked Integrity.

In the world of information security, the CIA Triad is a model designed to guide policies for information security within an organization. While Confidentiality and Availability often steal the spotlight, today, we’re focusing on the often-understated ‘I’ of the triad: Integrity. It’s all about maintaining the trustworthiness and accuracy of data. Let’s explore why Integrity is pivotal and the real-world implications when it’s compromised.

What is Data Integrity?

Data Integrity in information security refers to the reliability and trustworthiness of data throughout its lifecycle. It’s about ensuring that information remains unaltered from its source to destination as well as during storage, retrieval, and processing.

Means of Ensuring Data Integrity

Here are some of the practical ways that we can ensure data integrity:

Hashing and Checksums
These are mathematical algorithms that create a unique digital fingerprint of data. Any alteration to the data changes this fingerprint, indicating a potential compromise. For sensitive files, you can create a checksum when the file is created. You publish those checksums and when you download the file or access it again, you can recreate the checksum and see if they match. This is very common when downloading software from reputable sites.
Access Controls
Limiting who can alter data ensures that only authorized personnel can make changes, reducing the risk of malicious alterations. This one can be a little less obvious, but basically it is a lot harder to add an article to than it is to edit a Wikipedia page or publish a post on Reddit. That helps ensure that contains only the information the owners want it to and ensure that it isn’t changed to represent something different from that.
Version Control Systems
These systems track changes to documents or codebases, allowing the recovery of earlier versions if unauthorized changes are detected. If you’re a software developer, this isn’t only Git or the equivalent. This also includes Track Changes in MS Word and file versioning inside something like DropBox or Sharepoint. Because every change is tracked and the details are recorded, this makes it less likely that the change can go unnoticed, or that it would become irrevocable.

Real-World Examples

When and how would we see this in play? And why would we care in our personal lives? Consider:

Financial Transactions
Imagine transferring money online, but the transaction details are altered, sending your funds to a hacker’s account. If integrity checks didn’t exist along the way, no one would know where the transfer went or that it wasn’t your original intentions. Integrity controls in banking systems are crucial to prevent such occurrences.
Healthcare Records
A patient’s treatment plan is based on their medical history. If this data is altered, it could lead to incorrect treatments, posing serious health risks. If there was no integrity around the records, imagine the disaster that could occur if a malicious agent removed dealdly allergies from a patient’s file. The patient could easily die.
Legal Evidence
In legal proceedings, the integrity of evidence is paramount. Any tampering with digital evidence can lead to wrongful convictions or acquittals. This is the same deal as the Healthcare Records. What if someone could create/update/delete evidence or even just tamper with the chain of custody documents to have the evidence thrown out?

The Consequences of Compromised Integrity

When data integrity is breached, the results can be catastrophic:

Financial Loss
In the business world, altered data can lead to incorrect financial decisions, affecting a company’s bottom line. You could topple markets if you could change the data in financial reports published to the market.
Mistrust and Reputation Damage
When data integrity is compromised, it can erode trust in an organization, damaging its reputation and leading to loss of customers or partners. How long would you stay with an organization that greeted you by the wrong name when you signed in, showed the wrong order history, and the wrong demographics? Or if the doctor discussed procedures or diagnoses that never occurred? You’d be out in a minute, talking bad about them to anyone who would listen!
Legal and Compliance Issues
Many industries have regulatory requirements for data integrity. Violations can lead to legal penalties and fines. Imagine if SEC reports, EPA reports, OSHA reports all contained incomplete or erroneous data. Someone would be on Larry King in bad way.

Protecting Against Integrity Threats

So now we know what can happen if we do it wrong, but how do we do it the right way? Protecting the integrity of data involves:

Regular Audits and Monitoring
Regular checks can detect and rectify any integrity issues before they escalate. This assumes that you know the “truth” to compare things to. This includes looking for data changes, unauthorized file access, revisiting permissions regularly, and taking Blue Teaming seriously.
Education and Awareness
Training staff on the importance of data integrity and the risks associated with data tampering. People don’t know what they don’t know. You have to make sure your staff is aware that this is important and that they follow procedures around Integrity.
Implementing Robust Security Protocols
This includes using encryption on your data, robust access controls, and secure backup systems.

The integrity of data is a cornerstone of information security. As more and more of our personal and professional lives are online, the accuracy and reliability of our data are more critical than ever. Understanding its importance, implementing measures to protect it, and being vigilant about potential threats are key steps in safeguarding the integrity of our information.

In a world where data drives decisions, let’s ensure the decisions are based on uncorrupted, trustworthy information.