The CIA Triad: Confidentiality

Spy Dressed in TrenchcoatDuring our introduction in the last blog post, we mentioned the “CIA Triad” and gave a quick rundown about what it is. As a reminder, it’s not related to any government agency; rather, it stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability – three pillars of infosec. Today, let’s zoom in on the first pillar – Confidentiality – and unpack its significance, with a sprinkle of real-world examples and what happens when it fails.

In the simplest of terms, confidentiality in information security refers to the practice of ensuring that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes. It’s about access and exposure control. Whether it is personal data, corporate secrets, or sensitive government information, confidentiality aims to keep it under wraps from those not cleared to view it.

The Mechanisms of Ensuring Confidentiality

This is the process of encoding information so that only authorized parties can decode and access it. When you send an encrypted email, for instance, you’re ensuring that only the intended recipient with the right key can read it. Confidential data should always be encrypted at rest and in transit.
Access Controls
These are policies and technologies used to restrict access to data. Some examples passwords, biometric scans, or even simpler methods like locked file cabinets. Basically, we know that certain people are only allowed to access certain information. How do we first create a yes/no list and secondly, how do we make sure that you’re the person represented on the list?
Data Classification
By categorizing data based on its sensitivity, organizations can apply appropriate confidentiality controls. This is the easiest way to apply access controls broadly.
Pete can see public data and sensitive data, but not confidential or proprietary data. Luke can see public, sensitive, and confiential, but not proprietary. Jayson can see all kinds. Appropriate classifications can make access easier to maintain.

Real-World Examples

Under regulations like HIPAA in the U.S., patient health information must be kept confidential. Hospitals use secure databases with strict access controls to store patient records.
Financial institutions employ encryption to protect customer data during transactions. Your online banking session is an example where confidentiality is key to safeguard your financial information.
Legal Sector
Attorney-client privilege is a form of confidentiality. Communications are often encrypted to protect sensitive legal information from being accessed by outside parties.

The Consequences of Confidentiality Breaches

Now, what happens when confidentiality fails? The repercussions can be severe:

Identity Theft
If personal information like social security numbers or credit card details is leaked, individuals can face identity theft, leading to financial loss and a long road to credit recovery.
Corporate Espionage
For businesses, a breach of confidentiality can mean leaking trade secrets, resulting in a competitive disadvantage or even financial ruin.
National Security Threats
On a larger scale, if government secrets are exposed, it can lead to threats against national security and diplomatic relations.

Preventing Breaches of Confidentiality

The key to preventing breaches is a proactive approach:

Regular Training
Regularly educating employees on the importance of confidentiality and how to maintain it.
Up-to-Date Security Measures
Continuously updating security protocols and software to combat evolving threats.
Incident Response Planning
Having a plan in place in case a breach occurs, to minimize the damage.


In our increasingly digitized world, the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of information cannot be overstated. As individuals and organizations, understanding and applying the principles of confidentiality is not just a best practice but a necessity in safeguarding our data and, by extension, our digital identities.

Remember, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Let’s ensure confidentiality is a robust link in our information security chain.

2 comments The CIA Triad: Confidentiality

[…] of its acronym: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. We’ve already covered Confidentiality and this time we’re going to cover the often overlooked […]

[…] of its acronym: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. We’ve already covered Confidentiality and Integrity, this time we’re going to cover […]

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